Locating the position of the drill-bit in real time is a new technique from Guideline Oil Drilling Technology. The company aims to complete development of a land-based system this year Wholesale Authentic Soccer Jerseys , before adapting the system for offshore use.
Guideline’s technology employs seismic waves created by movement of the drill-bit to calculate its position. The system could be of major significance during directional drilling, when it is important to have accurate information on the location of the drill-bit, says CEO Peter Hjorth. Currently there is no method for doing this in real time, and often the process involves the time-consuming running of hardware down the well.
The company’s first target this year is to complete adaptation of the technology for mining and tunneling, followed by the oil and gas onshore application, in this case collaborating with a leading oil field services company.
The method involves monitoring the seismic waves generated by the drill-bit using an array of sensors placed on the ground. The distribution and number of sensors is governed by the well’s drill path, whether vertical or horizontal, and by the depth and length of the borehole.
Seismic data is delivered to a central collection point, and the x, y and z coordinates for the drill-bit are calculated within a few seconds using an algorithm. The background for this method comes from geological and seismological experience in Sweden, Hjorth says. Key elements such as the method of positioning the drill-bit in real time have already been patented and approved in Sweden and the US, and approvals are pending elsewhere in Europe, Canada and Japan.
Guideline believes that accuracy equivalent to current non-real time measurement methods is attainable. The results of the system are verified using established positioning methods.
Development of the algorithm is at the heart of the system. But the collection of the seismic data also presents challenges.
Compared with the percussion drilling used in the mining industry, the rotating bit employed in oil and gas drilling creates a weaker signal. This weakness is accentuated when drilling enters softer formations. Part of the development effort has therefore focused on identifying the best kind of sensor to use and the means of amplifying the signal.
Traveling speed of the seismic waves also varies according to the nature of the formation. Early readings are therefore taken when the drill-bit enters a new formation as a basis for calculating the pace at which the drill-bit passes through this formation.
Directional drilling Wholesale Soccer Jerseys , which has grown rapidly in recent years, offers an attractive market for this technology. This year some 20,000 directional wells are forecast to be drilled, generating a global spend of $5 billion on directional drilling services alone. The benefits of the technique are clear for land-based directional drilling, Hjorth claims. By conducting all measurements from ground level, drilling could be done faster, leading to significant cost savings, as no equipment needs to be run downhole.
For most people, exercising a dog consists of a trip to the park for a run around. In some cases this might suffice, but responsible owners should be aware of the quantity and quality of exercise that their dog needs to maintain optimum health. Ask yourself the following questions.
1) How often does your dog get exercised?
It does not take a genius to work out that you put on weight if you do not burn off the calories that you ingest. Exercise is extremely important to the health and well being of your dog. Fit dogs are happier, more active, more mobile and less susceptible to health problems such as arthritis, ligament ruptures and heart disease. With such huge individual variation between breeds and ages, we cannot recommend a set amount of exercise that each dog should have Wholesale Jerseys From China , but all dogs require at least one walk a day, with the more athletic ones requiring two.
2) What type of exercise does your dog do?
Whilst a walk or two a day may be perfectly adequate exercise for your dog, there is huge benefit to be had from mixing it up a bit and trying out new activities. Adding variety to a dogs exercise routine provides extra physical and mental challenges that can be both interesting and rewarding for both dog and owner. If your dog has any medical conditions (e.g. heart problem, arthritis) you must consult a veterinary professional before adding any unfamiliar exercises. Here we look at various types of exercise possible.
- Walking & Hiking
The most common form of exercise for dogs. Always have your dog on a lead unless you are in a park or rural area without traffic. Beware the potential existence of other dogs in public places that may be irresponsibly raised and show aggression to your pooch.
Getting your dog to run alongside you and adjust to fluctuations in your speed will require a little training, but if you are a keen jogger it is a great way of exercising your dog. Make sure you choose a pace that is comfortable for your dog, and only attempt jogging if you and your dog are able to walk briskly for 30 minutes without tiring.
This is fantastic if you have access to the countryside where your dog can run safely off the lead. Also great for athletic dogs that need to run greater distances than you do to achieve a proper workout. If you wish to cycle with your dog in urban areas, he or she must have impeccable lead manners and ideally respond to commands such as left and right. Cycling early in the morning when there is less traffic is wise, and avoid busy roads.